By Hassler J.W.
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Extra resources for Activated Carbon
80% of the length of two extended alkyl chains. 1 DiVerent amphiphile systems Homogeneous systems Solid phases Many diVerent structures Liquid crystalline phases Lamellar Hexagonal Reversed hexagonal Cubic: several structures known, which can be grouped into water-continuous, hydrophobe-continuous and bicontinuous `Intermediate' and `deformed' phases, including `nematic lyotropic' Isotropic solution phases Dilute and concentrated micellar solutions Reversed micellar solutions Microemulsions Vesicle solutions Heterogeneous systems Emulsions Suspensions Vesicles, liposomes Foams Adsorbed surfactant layers and other surfactant Wlms Gels detail the structures formed, as well as the underlying mechanisms, and will here only note two general features.
This hydroperoxide exhibited considerable skin irritation. Another oxidation product of some dermatological concern that has been isolated is the surfactant aldehyde shown below. This aldehyde is not very stable, however, and further oxidation leads to a break-down of the polyoxyethylene chain with formaldehyde formed as one of many degradation products. Both the surfactant aldehyde and formaldehyde are irritating to the skin and eye: Cn H2n1 (OCH2 CH2 )m1 3 Cn H2n1 (OCH2 CH2 )m À CH2 CHO 3 HCHO other degradation products An indirect way to monitor the autoxidation of alcohol ethoxylates is to measure the change in cloud point with time.
Sterols are another class of natural hydrophobes of potential interest as surfactant building blocks. The special feature of sterol-based surfactants is the large hydrophobic group of fully natural origin which, due to its rather planar four-ring structure, may induce good packing at interfaces. Phytosterol is the common name for sterols of plant origin and they are already today used as surfactant raw materials. Their structure is similar to that of cholesterol, the prime example of sterols from animal sources.