After anarchy : legitimacy and power in the United Nations by Ian Hurd

By Ian Hurd

The politics of legitimacy is important to diplomacy. whilst states understand a world association as valid, they defer to it, affiliate themselves with it, and invoke its symbols. reading the United countries safety Council, Ian Hurd demonstrates how legitimacy is created, used, and contested in diplomacy. The Council's authority depends upon its legitimacy, and accordingly its legitimation and delegitimation are of the top significance to states.

via an exam of the politics of the safety Council, together with the Iraq invasion and the negotiating background of the United international locations constitution, Hurd exhibits that after states use the Council's legitimacy for his or her personal reasons, they reaffirm its stature and locate themselves contributing to its authority. Case reviews of the Libyan sanctions, peacekeeping efforts, and the symbolic politics of the Council exhibit how the legitimacy of the Council shapes global politics and the way legitimated authority should be transferred from states to overseas agencies. With authority shared among states and different associations, the interstate approach isn't really a realm of anarchy. Sovereignty is sent between associations that experience strength simply because they're perceived as legitimate.

This book's cutting edge method of overseas businesses and diplomacy conception lends new perception into interactions among sovereign states and the United international locations, and among legitimacy and the workout of strength in overseas relations.

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In this same tradition we can also place John Austin and the classical legal positivists who find the essence of law in the act of enforcement. On this view, an attitude among the population of normative commitment to the rules or to their legitimacy is unimportant. Philip Soper, a legal theorist, writes: That many people may have such an attitude is simply a contingent fact about their personalities or about the coincidental convergence of their interests with the demands of a particular legal system; the attitude is not a necessary feature of law.

53 A consideration of all these theories is important to the debate in IR about the relationship between IOs and states. The degree of influence of IOs on state decisions, and the sources of that influence, are generally thought to provide one way to distinguish between the main paradigms of IR. For realists, the practical power of international organizations comes from whatever power strong states are willing to invest in making the organization influential. Only when states apply their own resources do IOs have the capacity to exert power over other states.

An actor who obeys a rule because of coercion is motivated by the fear of punishment from a stronger power. The rule itself is irrelevant except as a signal for the kinds of behavior that will or will not incur the penalty. If a social system relies primarily on coercion to motivate compliance with its rules, we would expect to see enormous resources devoted to enforcement and surveillance and low levels of compliance when the enforcing agent is not looking. ”16 A group of individuals can be moved from the state of nature to a human society only if the group willfully concedes to a central agent almost all powers of self-defense and retribution.

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