By Richard J. Borg and G. J. Dienes (Auth.)
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Additional info for An Introduction to Solid State Diffusion
RT Complexes Line imperfections in crystals are termed dislocations and consist of extra or misaligned crystallographic planes. They give rise to localized dilations and contractions. , the dotted line, results in a vertical translation of a single atomic spacing. between the vacancy and the defect. 12 illustrates the basic features of the prototypic line dislocations. v where a is the effective average number of complexing sites per disloca tion, and J_ stands for dislocation. ) + (F ±V F ° „ ) = 0.
Diffusive j u m p is a. Consequently, a measurement of the ionic conductivity leads to a value for D which is two times too large. The discrepancy between these two types of measurements provides the main support for the interstitialcy theory. C. Crowdion Mechanism T h e sharing of a single lattice site by two atoms, as in the case of split interstitials, is carried to the extreme by the crowdion configuration where « 4 - 1 atoms occupy η lattice sites. (See Fig. ) There are n o surely proven cases of a crowdion configuration existing in thermal equilibrium in a well annealed crystal, but it may exist as the result of radiation damage.
H o w does this compare with the number of thermally activated dis placements if the average value of D for the cladding is 1 0 ~ c m / s e c ? Assume the interatomic spacing of the cladding is 4 A. C a n you explain why radiation produced defects can degrade the mechanical integrity of a solid, while a much greater number of equilibrium defects do not? 1 0 2 Additional General References P. G. , N e w York 1963. C h a p . 1 provides a clear and concise introduction to the diffusion equations including derivations.